Module 4: Nephrology

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) affects a substantial proportion of the world population, especially among the elderly, and it is increasingly recognized as a global public health problem. Persons with diabetes or cardiovascular disease had a greater prevalence of CKD than persons without those conditions. CKD can be detected by using simple laboratory tests, and treatment can prevent or delay complications of decreased kidney function, slow the progression of kidney disease, and consequently reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. Therefore understanding of gender differences in renal diseases and their impact on diagnosis and management of CKD is of great importance. The possible mechanisms responsible for gender differences in renal disease progression include sexual disparities in the structure of kidney and the urinary tract, systemic- or glomerular hemodynamics, the direct cellular effects of sex hormones and gender-related differences in protein and calories intake.


Author: Ute Seeland
ExpertProf. Dr. med. Duska Dragun

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